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Introduction and development direction of insulating materials

Date: 2017-12-05
Views: 17

There are many insulation, and the power equipment often has high voltage, so special insulating material is needed. In electrical equipment, materials that separate the charged body from the other parts are called insulating materials. The commonly used solid materials are insulated paper, laminates, rubber, plastic, paint, glass, ceramics, mica, etc. The common liquid materials are transformer oil, etc. The transformer oil is used in the insulating oil dielectric strength tester. Air, nitrogen, six sulfur fluoride and so on are more used in the gaseous material. Insulating material: material composed of 109~1022 Omega? Cm material is called insulating material in electrical technology, also called dielectric. In a simple way, it is the material that isolates the charged body from the other parts. The insulation material has a very large resistance to the direct current. Under the action of the DC voltage, it is practically not conductive except for the tiny surface leakage current. For the AC current, there is a capacitance current passing through it, but it is also considered to be non conductive. The greater the resistivity of the insulating material, the better the insulation performance. A material used to isolate the conductive parts of different potentials. Its electrical conductivity is about 10-10 West / m below. In different electrical products, insulation materials often play the role of energy storage, heat dissipation, cooling, arc extinguishing, moisture-proof, mildew proof, anticorrosion, radiation protection, mechanical support and fixation, and protection conductor. There are many kinds of insulating materials, which can be divided into three categories: gas, liquid and solid. The common gas insulation materials are air, nitrogen, six sulfur fluoride and so on. Liquid insulating materials are mainly mineral insulating oil, synthetic insulating oil (silicone oil, twelve alkylbenzene, polyisobutylene, Yi Bingji biphenyl, two aryl ethane, etc.) two kinds. Solid insulating materials can be divided into two types, organic and inorganic. Materials include insulation paint, plastic insulation, insulation paper, fiber insulation products, plastics, rubber, paint and linoleum pipe insulation impregnating fiber products, electrical products and composite film, adhesive tape, electrical insulating organic solid laminate. The inorganic solid insulation materials are mainly mica, glass, ceramics and their products. In contrast, the variety of solid insulating materials is also the most important. The requirements of different electrical equipment on the performance of insulating materials have been emphasized. High voltage electrical equipment, such as high voltage motor, high voltage cable and other insulation materials, require high breakdown strength and low dielectric loss. The main requirements of low voltage electrical apparatus are mechanical strength, elongation at break, heat resistance grade and so on. The macroscopic properties of insulating materials, such as electrical properties, thermal properties, mechanical properties, chemical resistance, climate change and corrosion resistance, are closely related to their chemical composition and molecular structure. Inorganic solid insulating material is mainly composed of silicon, boron and various metal oxides, ionic structure, main features of high heat resistance, temperature is generally higher than 180 DEG, good stability, ageing resistance, chemical resistance and long-term aging properties under electric field; but high brittleness. The impact of low strength, high pressure and low tensile strength; poor technology. Organic materials are generally polymers with an average molecular weight of 104~106, and their heat resistance is usually lower than that of inorganic materials. The heat resistance of the materials containing aromatic ring, heterocyclic ring, silicon, titanium and fluorine is higher than that of general linear chain polymer. The important factors affecting dielectric properties of insulating materials are the strength of molecular polarity and the content of polar components. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss of polar materials are all higher than those of non polar materials, and it is easy to adsorb impurity ions to increase the conductivity and reduce the dielectric properties. Therefore, in the manufacturing process of insulating materials, we should pay attention to cleaning and prevent pollution. The dielectric requires a high dielectric constant to improve its specific characteristics.

The first insulation materials used in development are cotton, silk, mica, rubber and other natural products. In the early twentieth Century, the industrial synthetic plastic phenolic resin was first introduced, and its electrical properties were good and the heat resistance was high. Later, a better performance of urea formaldehyde resin and alkyd resin have been developed. The appearance of three chlorinated biphenyl synthetic insulating oil has made a leap in the power capacitor's bit character (but because it is harmful to human health, it has ceased to be used later). Six sulfur fluoride was also synthesized in the same period. Since 30s, synthetic insulation materials have been developing rapidly, mainly including acetal resin, neoprene rubber, polyvinyl chloride, styrene butadiene rubber, polyamide, melamine, polyethylene and excellent polytetrafluoroethylene, etc. The appearance of these synthetic materials has played an important role in the development of electrical technology. For example, acetal enameled wire is used for motor to improve its working temperature and reliability, while the volume and weight of the motor are greatly reduced. The development of glass fiber and its braided belts and the synthesis of silicone resin have added the H grade to the insulation of the motor. After 40s, unsaturated polyester and epoxy resin came out. The appearance of the powder mica paper makes people get rid of the plight of the lack of mica resources. Since 50s, new materials based on synthetic resins have been widely used, such as unsaturated polyester and epoxy and other insulating adhesives for high voltage motor coil impregnation. The application of polyester products in motor slot lining, enameled wire and impregnating varnish has developed E and B grade low voltage motor insulation, so that the volume and weight of motor are further reduced. Six sulfur fluoride began to be used in high voltage electrical apparatus and made it to large capacity miniaturization. The air insulation of the circuit breaker and the oil and paper insulation of the transformer are partially replaced by six sulfur fluoride. In 60s, the heat-resistant resins containing heterocyclic and aromatic rings have been greatly developed, such as polyimide, polyaryl amide, polysulfone, polyphenylene sulfide.

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